Stray finds in the collection include stone axes, wedges, spearheads, jewellery and other antiquities found from different parts of Saaremaa. Stray finds also contain 16th–17th century hoards found from Neemi village (1960) and Nõmmküla village (1965), objects that were part of Tõrise coin hoard (1999) and antiquities found from the cultural layer at the place where Kõnnu Stone Age settlement was once located.
Two thirds of the museum objects in the archaeological collection have been unearthed during archaeological excavations. The first excavation finds that made their way into the archaeological collection where found during the excavation of rectangular, so called tarand-grave in the Liiva-Putla village (1963). The collection started to grow fast at the end of the 1980s thanks to archaeological excavations that took place in Kahutsi, Piila, Tõnija, Lepna, etc.
Finds that have been collected during archaeological supervision on construction sites and have been handed over to the museum
These include finds from Kaarma pastorate, Maasilinn Order Castle, Kuressaare town, etc. The biggest sub-collections of the archaeological collection come from Kuressaare Fortress, burial mounds of Tuulingumägi at Tõnija and Kahutsi Stronghold.